Complicated or complex – knowing the difference is importantBirds flocking provide a good example of a complex adaptive systemBirds flocking provide a good example of a complex adaptive systemUnderstanding the difference between complex and complicated systems is becoming important for many aspects of management and policy. With complicated problems or issues one can define the problem and strategically develop actions, time-frames and milestones along a path to success. In contrast, cause and effect are difficult to predict in complex adaptive systems. This post aims to provide more detail around these concepts as an introduction. It complements the LfS Managing complex adaptive systems page, which provides annotated links to a number of key on-line resources in this area.